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动词不定式在中学英语中应用非常广泛,一方面在句中 可起名词、形容词或副词的作用,同时也可在句中作主语、 宾语、定语、状语和宾语补足语。接下来为大家提供了以下:
动词不定式的用法总结一 动词不定式的形式一般是 to +动词原形,但 to 有时要 省去。 而动词不定式在具体运用时用不用 to,取决于谓语动词 的用法。 现就以下几方面介绍如下。 一、 不定式结构 1. 带 to 的不定式结构 能直接跟带 to 的不定式结构的动词主要有:want, ask, tell, hope, learn, try, decide, forget, remember, like, love, stop, go, come 等。 如: I want to go to the movies with you. 我想跟你一起去看电影。 Don’t forget to turn off the light before you leave. 在你离开之前别忘了关灯。 注意:动词不定式的否定形式是在不定式前直接加 not, 即 not to do sth.。
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★精品文档★ 如: Dave told me not to wake up Kate. 大卫告诉我别叫醒凯特。 2. 不带 to 的不定式结构 以下几种情况使用不带 to 的动词不定式: (1)在固定词组 had better 之后。 注意:had better 的否定形式是 had better not do sth.。 如: You had better go home now. 你最好现在回家。 It’s cold outside. You’d better not go out. 外面很冷,你最好不要出去。 (2)在 let, make, see, feel, watch, hear 等感官或 使役动词后,要跟不带 to 的动词不定式作宾语补足语。 如: I made them give me the money back. 我迫使他们把钱还给我。 I didn’t see you come in. 我没看见你进来。 (3)在引导疑问句的 why not 之后。 Why not+不带 to 的不定式是 Why don’t you do 的省
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★精品文档★ 略,可以用来提出建议或劝告。
如: Why not study with us? 为什么不和我们一起学呢? Why not take a holiday?=Why don ’ t you take a holiday? 为什么不休个假呢? (4)不定式动词在介词 but, except, besides 后面时, 如这些介词前有实义动词 do 的各种形式,则后接不带 to 的 不定式,否则带 to。 如: I have no choice but to accept the fact. 除了接受这个事实我别无选择。 What do you like to do besides swim? 除了游泳你还喜欢做什么? (5)为了避免重复,不定式可省去 to。 如: I’m really puzzled what to think or say. 对于想什么或说什么,我真的很困惑。 二、 不定式的时态 不定式常用的时态有一般时、完成时、进行时和完成进 行时四种,常用的为前三种。
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★精品文档★ 1. 一般时 动词不定式的一般式表示不定式的动作或状态与谓语 动词所表示的动作同时发生或在之后发生。 如: I plan to attend the meeting. 我计划参加这次会议。 2. 完成时 不定式的完成式表示不定式的动作发生在谓语动词表 示的动作之前。 如: I am sorry to have kept you waiting. 很抱歉让你久等了。 3. 进行时 不定式的进行式表示不定式的动作与谓语动词所表示 的动作同时发生。 如: They are said to be working hard. 据说他们工作得很努力。 4. 完成进行时 不定式的完成进行式表示不定式的动作在谓语动词之 前已经发生,并且一直进行着。 如:
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★精品文档★ He is said to have been working in that factory for twelve years. 据说他已在那家工厂工作 12 年了。 三、 动词不定式在句中的作用 1. 作主语 如:To live is to work. 生活就是工作。 To save time is to lengthen life. 节约时间就等于延长了人的生命。 不定式结构作主语时,现代英语倾向于采用 it 作形式 主语,而把不定式结构后置的形式。 如: It is important for students to study English. 学好英语对学生来说是很重要的。 2. 作定语 (1)不定式作定语,要放在它所修饰的名词或代词的后 面。 如: I have nothing to say on this question. 对这个问题我无可奉告。 (2)如果不定式是不及物动词,后面就应有必要的介词。 如:
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★精品文档★ Give me a piece of paper to write on. 给我一张纸 写字。 (3)有些名词常可用不定式作定语。 如: Our teacher had no time to think about rest. 我们老师根本没时间考虑休息一下。 3. 作宾语 I wish to be a college student. 我希望成为一名大学生。 有的及物动词要求跟复合宾语(宾语+宾语补足语)。 如果其中的宾语是不定式短语,则必须将形式宾语 it 放在宾语的位置上,而将不定式短语(真正的宾语)放在宾语 补足语之前。 如: I find it useful to learn English well. 我发现学好英语很有用。 4. 作宾语补足语 动词不定式作宾语补足语是动词不定式用法的一个重 点,学*时要注意以下三种情况。 (1)作动词 ask, like, tell 等的宾语补足语时,动词 不定式符号 to 不可以省略。 如:
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★精品文档★ He asked me to talk about English study. 他请我谈谈英语学*。 (2)作使役动词 let, have, make 以及感官动词 feel, hear, see, watch 等的宾语补足语时,动词不定式符号 to 要省略。 如: The teacher made him say the word like this. 老师让他像这样说这个单词。 (3)作动词 help 的宾语补足语时,动词不定式符号 to 可以带,也可以不带。 如: Could you help me (to) carry the heavy box? 你能帮我搬这个重箱子吗? 5. 作状语 动词不定式及其短语具有副词的特性,可在句中作状 语。 (1)作目的状语。 如: He stopped to have a rest. 他停下来休息。 (2)作结果状语。 如:
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★精品文档★ He woke up to find everybody gone. 他醒来发现大家都走了。 (3)在某些表示喜、怒、哀、乐等的形容词后作原因状 语。 如: I’m sorry to hear your grandma is ill. 听到你奶奶生病真遗憾。 (4)在带有 enough 或 too 的句子里作状语,表程度。 如: He is old enough to go to school. 他到了上学年龄了。 (5)强调动词不定式所表示的目的时,动词不定式可用 in order to 或 so as to +动词原形,so as to 不用于句首。 如: The bus stopped so as to pick up passengers. 公共汽车停下来以便接乘客。 动词不定式的用法总结二 英语中的动词不定式在考试中是比较常见的。 不定式在句子中可做主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语和 宾语补语。 以下是动词不定时的用法解析。 1)动词不定式做主语一般表示具体的某次动作。
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To complete the 30 storied building in one year was quite a difficult task.
To do that implies taking responsibility. 当主语较长,谓语较短时,常用 it 做形式主语,而将 不定式放到谓语的后面。
It is important for modern young people to master at least two foreign languages.
It 做形式主语,不定式放在谓语动词之后常用于下列结 构中:
a) It is+ 形 容 词 (easy, important, difficult, foolish, inconvenient, unnecessary, right, wrong...)+( for/of sb.)+不定式
It is essential to reserve a table in advance of Christmas Eve.
It is hard to put my hopessintoswords. It is not easy to catch fish with your hands only. It is important for us young people to learn English and master it. b) It is+名词(a pleasure, a pity, a pleasant thing,
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★精品文档★ one ’ s du?ty, an honor, a shame, a crime, no easy job...)+不定式
It is a sheer waste of time to read that kind of trash.
It is a pity to have to go without her. It is a glorious death to die for the people. c) It takes (sb.) some time (hours, months, days, a lot of time, patience...)+不定式 It takes me three hours to learn English each day. It took them half the night to get home in the snow. 2)动词不定式作表语不定式作表语常表示将来的动作, 主语常常是表示意向、打算、计划的词,如 wish, idea, task, purpose, duty, job 等。
The most important thing for one’s health is to have plenty of exercise.
My chief purpose has been to point out the difficulties of the matter.
The purpose of the organization is to greet all new comers to the city and to provide them with any necessary information.
What I wanted was to get the work done as quickly
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★精品文档★ as possible.
3)动词不定式作宾语不定式常在下列动词后面作宾语: afford, agree, apply, arrange, ask, attempt, beg, begin, care, choose, claim, consent, demand, decide, desire, determine, expect, fail, hope, hesitate, hate, intend, learn, like, manage, mean, neglect, offer, plan, prepare pretend, promise, refuse, resolve, seek, tend, threaten, want 等。
I like to go out for walks in the warm sunshine in spring.
My mother hates to move from place to place, for she feels tired.I decide to work hard and get doctor’ s degree.
The room is designed to be my study, but now it has to be used as a bedroom for the children.
She failed to finish the assignment in time, and she was worried about it.
There is a man at the reception desk who seems very angry and I think he means( )trouble. (CET-4 1997, 1)
A) making B) to make
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★精品文档★ C) to have made D)shavingsmade mean 后面一般加不定式,所以 A 和 D 可以排除。 根据句意,他看起来非常生气,他想找麻烦,不定式的 动作还没有实施,应用一般式,因此答案为 B。 不定式作宾语还常用在下面结构中;主语+动词+it+形 容词+不定式。
We found it impossible to get everything ready in time. I think it important to learn English well in college. 使用这种句型的常见动词有:believe, consider, declare, feel, find, guess, imagine, prove, realize, suppose, think,等。
4)“wh?word+ 不 定 式 ” 结 构 不 定 式 前 加 一 个 疑 问 代 词 (what, which, who, whom, whose)或疑问副词(where, when, how, why),以及连词 whether 构成特殊的不定式短语,其 作用相当于一个从句,这样的不定式短语常在某些动词后面 作宾语。
常见的可以接这种动词不定式短语的动词有: know, see, decide, tell, ask, consider, discover, explain, findout, forget, guess, hear, imagine, inquire, learn, observe, perceive, remember, think,
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★精品文档★ understand, wonder 等。
I couldn’t decide which book to choose. I can tell youswheresto get this book.They found it hard to decide whether to go swimming next Sunday or to visit Aunt Sally in New Year. “wh?word+不定式”结构除了作宾语 外,还可以在句中作主语或者表语。
When to start the program remains undecided. The question is how to put the plansintospractice.
5)动词不定式作状语 a)不定式作状语表示目的。 或用于 so as 和 in order 之后,来强调这种目的。
To learn a foreign language well, you must make painstaking efforts.
Mother saved every cent she could spare to pay for my schooling.We must develop science and technology at high speed so as to raise scientific and cultural level of our country.
Insgroupsto get a high mark in Band 4, he did a lot of exercises both in grammar and reading comprehension.
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★精品文档★ b) 动 词 不 定 式 表 示 结 果 , 特 别 是 在 so...as to, such...as to, only to...以及 too...to 等结构中的不定 式表示结果。
I rushed to the station as fast as I could, only to find the train already gone.
She left her hometown with her beloved man, never to return.No one is too old to learn.
Would you be so kind as to carry the luggage for me?
c)动词不定式常用来修饰形容词,构成下列词组:be able to, be afraid to, be apt to, be bound to, be certain to, be easy to, be eager to, be fit to, be likely to, be ready to, be sure to, be unable to, be unwilling to, be willing to 等。
Chinese team is bound to win the World Cup. It is likely to rain today, for it is very cloudy. I am willing to help you with your homework, for we are friends. 6)动词不定式作宾语补语不定式常跟在下列动词之后 作宾语补语:ask, advise, allow, beg, cause, compel,
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★精品文档★ command, enable, encourage, expect, feel, force, find, hear, have, inform, invite, let, make, mean, notice, order, permit, persuade, remind, require, request, teach, tell, urge, watch, warn, watch 等。
Because of the complexity of the modern equipments, most offices require secretaries to have specified training.
动词不定式的用法总结三 动词不定式在句子中可充当主语、宾语、表语和宾语补 足语和状语(包括目的状语,结果状语和原因状语。) 1. 作主语 To dance with you makes me happy. 和你跳舞令我高兴。 It is difficult to drive in the mountains. (=To drive in the mountains is difficult.) 在山里开车很困难。 2. 作宾语 (1) 后 接 不 定 式 作 宾 语 的 及 物 动 词 多 是 表 示 “ 意 愿 ” “企图”等的动词,如:hope, want, wish, desire, like, decide, try, promise, refuse. I want to talk with her.
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★精品文档★ 我想和她谈谈。 She has decided to go. 她已决定要走。 (2)在 feel, find, think, consider, make 等动词后 如果是不定式作宾语,而补语是形容词,则通常用 it 作形 式宾语,而把真正的宾语即不定式移至形容词之后。 如: I find it impossible to forget her. 我发现忘掉她是不可能的。 He thought it necessary to take an umbrella. 他认为带把伞是必要的。 3. 作表语 Her wish is to be a teacher. 他的愿望是成为一名教师。 Your duty is to clean the classroom. 你的任务是打扫教室。 4. 作宾语补足语 He wants me to come earlier. 他想要我来得更早些。 The policeman ordered them to turn around. 警察命令他们转过身。 5. 作目的状语
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★精品文档★ She opened the window to let some fresh air in. 她打开窗子好让新鲜空气进来。 I went there to see her yesterday. 昨天我去那儿看她了。 6. 作结果状语 He is too tired to go any further. 他太累了,不能再走了。 He is not old enough to join the army. 他年龄太小,不能参军。 7. 作原因状语 不定式跟在表示“喜、怒、哀、乐”的形容词之后,可 以表示引起这些情感的原因。 I’m sorry to trouble you. 真抱歉给你带来麻烦。 I’m glad to see you. 见到你真高兴。
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